Orientation


Orientation in space and astronautical engineering refers to the determination of the position and attitude of a spacecraft or satellite relative to a reference frame. This involves measuring the spacecraft's position, velocity, and orientation using various sensors and instruments such as star trackers, gyroscopes, accelerometers, and GPS receivers. The orientation of a spacecraft is critical for its proper functioning, as it affects the pointing of antennas, solar panels, and scientific instruments, as well as the stability and control of the spacecraft. Orientation is also important for navigation, rendezvous and docking, and attitude control during maneuvers and operations. Orientation can be expressed in different coordinate systems such as inertial, celestial, or body-fixed frames, and can be represented by Euler angles, quaternions, or rotation matrices.


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