Ground


In space and astronautical engineering, ground refers to the surface of a celestial body, such as a planet or a moon, where a spacecraft or a rover lands and operates. Ground operations involve all the activities that take place on the surface of a celestial body, including landing, takeoff, surface mobility, sample collection, and scientific measurements. Ground operations require careful planning and execution to ensure the safety of the spacecraft and the success of the mission. Ground systems, such as landing gear, wheels, and robotic arms, are designed to withstand the harsh conditions of the celestial body and to perform their intended functions with high reliability and accuracy. Ground operations also involve communication between the spacecraft and the ground station, which enables the transmission of data, commands, and telemetry. Ground operations are a critical part of space exploration and are essential for the advancement of our understanding of the universe.


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